Relationship Between Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Of Nurses in the Management of Pediatric Pain
Mercedes Stanley and Deborah Pollard
Pain management is a very important aspect of nursing care of the pediatric patient. A nurse's knowledge and attitude can affect his or her ability to adequately provide pediatric pain management. This study examined the level of knowledge of pediatric pain management, the attitudes of nurses, and the level of selfefficacy of pediatric nurses in acute care. In addition, the relationship between the years of experience and the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were examined. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used in a convenience, non-probability sample of 25 pediatric nurses. Nurses volunteering to participate in the study were asked to complete two instruments: Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PNKAS-Shriners Revision) (Manworren, 2000, 2001) and Nurses' Self-Efficacy in Managing Children's Pain (Chiang, Chen, & Huang, 2006). There was no statistically significant relationship between knowledge and self-efficacy (r = 0.039, p = 0.853) or knowledge and years of nursing experience (r = 0.050, p = 0.822). There was a statistically significant relationship between the level of knowledge and the years of pediatric experience (r = 0.404, p = 0.05) and knowledge and the membership in a professional nursing organization (t = 4.050, p = 0.004). Years of pediatric nursing experience correlated with significantly higher knowledge levels, as did a membership in a professional nursing organization. Further, education may benefit pediatric nurses in regard to their management of pediatric pain. Research is needed to examine the effects of self-efficacy on pediatric pain management and how it relates to the level of knowledge.